Institut für Energiesysteme und Elektrische Antriebe, Arbeitsgruppe Elektrische Anlagen
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Super-4-Micro-Grid - Sustainable power supply regarding climatic change


Because of climate change, risks for a secure and sustainable power supply arise. In this project the influences on the security of power supply, new tasks for transmission systems and storage power plants for a trans-regional, energy-based balancing under integration of micro grids as well as an optimal mix of regenerative energy sources are investigated.


The future shortage of fossil resources, caused by increasing demand of industrialized countries and industrialization of developing countries will affect the security of supply and accelerate the climate change. As a result, the motivation arises, to change to a sustainable and renewable energy generation. The central question in the Project Super-4-micro-grid is: "can the Austrian electricity demand be fully covered by renewable generation, and if so, how?"

To answer this question, first the regenerative supply by rainfall, wind speed and solar radiation under the influence of projected climatic changes is computed for the year 2050. The modeling of Austria as an island-system leads to the energetic demand coverage ("energy independence") and the continuous balance between production and consumption ("power independence"). The storage requirements which are necessary to meet these requirements and the required capacity of the transmission network are calculated.

Based on hourly, spatially high-resolution meteorological data from 1994 to 2008 a precipitation-runoff model was created, a climate model was used and the series of electrical generation from hydropower, wind power and photovoltaic are calculated. The potential of renewable generation were determined using a geographic information system (GIS). The variation of the annual electricity demand and the expansion degree of the hydropower potential are covered in six different scenarios. For the respective optimal generation mix, the storage management and power grid load were simulated.

The climatological data show no clustering of extreme situations. Except for small changes in seasonal supply, climate change has no serious effect on the regenerative production. However, the development of the Austrian electricity demand is decisive to the question whether energetic coverage can be achieved. The load on the transmission grid (assuming 380-kV ring expansion) is manageable for slight increases in load. The largely sufficient installed turbine power of (pump-)storage plants is offset by a high need for additional pumping capacity to compensate for any difference between generation and load. The long-term storage capacity of the (pump-)storage plants is far from sufficient to compensate the differences in generation for seasons or even several years.

Final Report

TU Wien, ESEA/EA (Hrsg.): Super-4-Micro-Grid - Nachhaltige Energieversorgung im Klimawandel, approbierter Endbericht zum Forschungsprojekt im Rahmen der 1. AS Neue Energien 2020, Projektnummer: 818954, Wien 2011


The results of the project Super-4-Micro-Grid were presented at the WEC-Workshop Die Energiewende on 14.11.2012 in Vienna. The presentation and further information can be found here.

Further Publications

Project Members

Project Leader:

  • Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems und Electrical Drives

Project Partners:

  • Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik
  • TU Wien, Institut für Ingenieurhydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft
  • VERBUND Hydro Power AG
  • Illwerke-VKW AG


Dipl.-Ing. Martin Boxleitner

Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Groiß


From 01/2009 till 06/2011

The project was founded by Klima- und Energiefonds in the programme „NEUE ENERGIEN 2020“.

This project is related to the following research area:Nachhaltige Energiesysteme